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References for Table

Community Acquired Pneumonia: 12 RCTs (total N = 7,295 patients)

  1. Singh N, Rogers P, Atwood CW, Wagener MM, Yu VL. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit. A proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162(2 Pt 1): 505-11.

  2. Dunbar LM, Khashab MM, Kahn JB, Zadeikis N, Xiang JX, Tennenberg AM. Efficacy of 750-mg, 5-day levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens. Current medical research and opinion 2004; 20(4): 555-63.

  3. Zhao X, Wu JF, Xiu QY, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial of levofloxacin 750 mg versus 500 mg intravenous infusion in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 80(2): 141-7.

  4. Pakistan Multicentre Amoxycillin Short Course Therapy pneumonia study g. Clinical efficacy of 3 days versus 5 days of oral amoxicillin for treatment of childhood pneumonia: a multicentre double-blind trial. Lancet 2002; 360(9336): 835-41.

  5. Greenberg D, Givon-Lavi N, Sadaka Y, Ben-Shimol S, Bar-Ziv J, Dagan R. Short-course antibiotic treatment for community-acquired alveolar pneumonia in ambulatory children: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2014; 33(2): 136-42.

  6. el Moussaoui R, de Borgie CA, van den Broek P, et al. Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study. Bmj 2006; 332(7554): 1355.

  7. Uranga A, Espana PP, Bilbao A, et al. Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA internal medicine 2016; 176(9): 1257-65.

  8. Dinh A, Davido B, Bouchand F, Duran C, Ropers J, Cremieux AC. Honey, I shrunk the antibiotic therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 66(12):1981-2.

  9. Harris JA, Kolokathis A, Campbell M, Cassell GH, Hammerschlag MR. Safety and efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 1998; 17(10): 865-71.

  10. Ginsburg AS, Mvalo T, Nkwopara E. et al. Amoxicillin for 3 or 5 Days for Chest-Indrawing Pneumonia in Malawian Children. NEJM.  2020 383: 13-23.

  11. Pernica JM, Harman S, Kam AJ, et al. Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia. JAMA Pediatrics, 2021; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6735.

  12. Dinh A, Ropers J, Duran C, et al.  Discontinuing β-lactam treatment after 3 days for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in non-critical care wards (PTC): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2021 397:1195-1203.

Nosocomial/Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: 2 RCTs (total N = 626 patients)

  1. Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290(19): 2588-98.

  2. Capellier G, Mockly H, Charpentier C, et al. Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults randomized clinical trial: comparison of 8 versus 15 days of antibiotic treatment. PLoS One 2012; 7(8): e41290.

Complicated UTI/Pyelonephritis: 7 RCTs (total N = 1,342 patients)

  1. Jernelius H, Zbornik J, Bauer CA. One or three weeks' treatment of acute pyelonephritis? A double-blind comparison, using a fixed combination of pivampicillin plus pivmecillinam. Acta Med Scand 1988; 223(5): 469-77.

  2. de Gier R, Karperien A, Bouter K, et al. A sequential study of intravenous and oral Fleroxacin for 7 or 14 days in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 1995; 6(1): 27-30.

  3. Talan DA, Stamm WE, Hooton TM, et al. Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis pyelonephritis in women: a randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 283(12): 1583-90.

  4. Sandberg T, Skoog G, Hermansson AB, et al. Ciprofloxacin for 7 days versus 14 days in women with acute pyelonephritis: a randomised, open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2012; 380(9840): 484-90.

  5. Peterson J, Kaul S, Khashab M, Fisher AC, Kahn JB. A double-blind, randomized comparison of levofloxacin 750 mg once-daily for five days with ciprofloxacin 400/500 mg twice-daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. Urology 2008; 71(1): 17-22.

  6. Klausner HA, Brown P, Peterson J, et al. A trial of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days versus ciprofloxacin 400 mg and/or 500 mg twice daily for 10 days in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Current medical research and opinion 2007; 23(11): 2637-45.

  7. Dinh A, Davido B, Etienne M, et al.  Is 5 days of oral fluoroquinolone enough for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis? The DTP randomized trial.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis.  2017; 36:1443-8.


Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: 2 RCTs (total N = 766 patients)

  1. Sawyer RG, Claridge JA, Nathens AB, et al. Trial of short-course antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infection. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(21): 1996-2005.

  2. Montravers P, Tubach F, Lescot T, et al. Short-course antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients treated for postoperative intra-abdominal infection: the DURAPOP randomised clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 2018; 44(3):300-310.


GNB Bacteremia: 2 RCTs (total N = 938 patients; not including multiple cUTI/cIAI pts in above trials who were also bacteremic)

  1. Yahav D, Franceschini E, Koppel F, et al. Seven versus fourteen Days of Antibiotic Therapy for uncomplicated Gram-negative Bacteremia: a Non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis 2018 69:1091-8.

  2. von Dach E, Albrich WC, Brunel AS, et al. Effect of C-Reactive Protein-Guided Antibiotic Treatment Duration, 7-Day Treatment, or 14-Day Treatment on 30-Day Clinical Failure Rate in Patients With Uncomplicated Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020. 323:2160-9.

​​Acute Bacterial Skin Infections: 4 RCTs (3 non-inferior, total N = 1,412 patients; 1 trial, N = 151 of low dose oral fluclox which is poorly absorbed had excess relapses at 90 d)

  1. Hepburn MJ, Dooley DP, Skidmore PJ, Ellis MW, Starnes WF, Hasewinkle WC. Comparison of short-course (5 days) and standard (10 days) treatment for uncomplicated cellulitis. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164(15): 1669-74.

  2. Prokocimer P, De Anda C, Fang E, Mehra P, Das A. Tedizolid phosphate vs linezolid for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: the ESTABLISH-1 randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2013; 309(6): 559-69.

  3. Moran GJ, Fang E, Corey GR, Das AF, De Anda C, Prokocimer P. Tedizolid for 6 days versus linezolid for 10 days for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ESTABLISH-2): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2014; 14(8): 696-705.

  4. Cranendonk et al.  Antibiotic treatment for 6 days versus 12 days in patients with severe cellulitis: a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2019; 26(5):606-612.


Chronic Osteomyelitis: 2 RCTs (total N = 391 patients)

  1. Bernard L, Dinh A, Ghout I, et al. Antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks versus 12 weeks in patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet 2015.  385:875-82.

  2. Tone A, et a. Six-week versus twelve-week antibiotic therapy for nonsurgically treated diabetic foot osteomyelitis: a multicenter open-label controlled randomized study. Diabetes Care 2015;38:302-307.

Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis with Debridement: 1 RCTs (total N = 93 patients)

  1. Gariani K, Pham T-T, Kressman B, et al. Three versus six weeks of antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot osteomyelitis: A prospective, randomized, non-inferiority pilot trial. Clin Infect Dis 2020.  ePub.


Septic Arthritis: 1 RCTs (total N = 154 patients)

  1. Gjika E, et al. Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2019; 78:1114–1121.

Ortho Implant with Removal: 1 RCTs (total N = 123 patients)

  1. Benkabouche M, et al. Four versus six weeks of antibiotic therapy for osteoarticular infections after implant removal: a randomized trial. J Antimicrob Chemother 2019. 74:2394-99.

Acute Exacerbation Chronic Bronchitis/COPD: >20 RCTs (total N = 10,698 patients)

  1. El Moussaoui R, Roede BM, Speelman P, Bresser P, Prins JM, Bossuyt PM. Short-course antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD: a meta-analysis of double-blind studies. Thorax 2008; 63(5):415-22.

Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 6 RCTs (total N = 2,423 patients)

  1. Henry DC, Riffer E, Sokol WN, Chaudry NI, Swanson RN. Randomized double-blind study comparing 3- and 6-day regimens of azithromycin with a 10-day amoxicillin-clavulanate regimen for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(9):2770-2774.

  2. Ferguson BJ, Anon J, Poole MD, et al. Short treatment durations for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: Five days of gemifloxacin versus 7 days of gemifloxacin. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127(1):1-6.

  3. Sher LD, McAdoo MA, Bettis RB, Turner MA, Li NF, Pierce PF. A multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study of 5- and 10-day gatifloxacin versus 10-day amoxicillin/clavulanate in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis. Clin Ther. 2002;24(2):269-281.

  4. Roos K, Brunswig-Pitschner C, Kostrica R, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily therapy with telithromycin for 5 or 10 days for the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis. Chemotherapy. 2002;48(2):100-108.

  5. Williams JW Jr, Holleman DR Jr, Samsa GP, Simel DL. Randomized controlled trial of 3 vs 10 days of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for acute maxillary sinusitis. JAMA. 1995;273(13):1015-1021.

  6. Klapan I, Culig J, Oresković K, Matrapazovski M, Radosević S. Azithromycin versus amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute sinusitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 1999;20(1):7-11.

 (special thanks to Dr. Fernando Dominguez @FDominguezID for identifying the ABS trials!)​

Neutropenic Fever: 1 RCTs (total N = 157 patients)

  1. Aguilar-Guisado M, Espigado I, Martin-Pena A, et al. Optimisation of empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with haematological malignancies and febrile neutropenia (How Long study): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 4 trial. Lancet Haematol 2017; 4(12): e573-e83.

Latent TB: 8 RCTs (total N = 21,140 patients)

  1. Sterling TR, Scott NA, Miro JM, et al. Tuberculosis Trials Consortium, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group for the PREVENT TB Trial (TBTC Study 26ACTG 5259).  Three months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-coinfected persons. AIDS 2016;30:1607–15.

  2. Martinson NA, Barnes GL, Moulton LH, et al. New regimens to prevent tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection. N Engl J Med 2011;365:11–20.

  3. Sterling TR, Villarino ME, Borisov AS, et al. TB Trials Consortium PREVENT TB Study Team. Three months of rifapentine and isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2155–66.

  4. Villarino ME, Scott NA, Weis SE, et al. International Maternal Pediatric and Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials Group; Tuberculosis Trials Consortium. Treatment for preventing tuberculosis in children and adolescents: a randomized clinical trial of a 3-month, 12-dose regimen of a combination of rifapentine and isoniazid. JAMA Pediatr 2015;169:247–55.

  5. Diallo T, Adjobimey M, Ruslami R, et al. Safety and side e􀃗ffects of rifampin versus isoniazid in children. N Engl J Med 2018;379:454–63.

  6. Menzies D, Adjobimey M, Ruslami R, et al. Four months of rifampin or nine months of isoniazid for latent tuberculosis in adults. N Engl J Med 2018;379:440–53.

  7. Menzies D, Dion MJ, Rabinovitch B, Mannix S, Brassard P, Schwartzman K. Treatment completion and costs of a randomized trial of rifampin for 4 months versus isoniazid for 9 months. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170:445–9.

  8. Swindells , Ramchandani R, Gupta A, et al.  One month of rifapentine plus isoniazid to prevent HIV-related tuberculosis. New Eng J Med. 2019;380:1001-1011.

P. vivax Malaria: 1 RCTs (total N = 1,872 patients)

  1. Taylor W, et al. Short-course primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2019; 394(10202):929-938.